Version: 6.x-24
Compliance

Field anonymization

Instead of removing sensitive fields from a document with field-level security, you can also choose to anonymize them. At the moment this features is available for String based fields only and replaces the actual field value with a cryptographic hash.

Field masking works well together with field-level security and can be applied to on a per-role and per-index basis. This gives you the flexibility of allowing certain roles to see sensitive fields in clear text, while anonymizing them for others.

Hash algorithm and salts

Search Guard uses Blake2bDigest to calculate the hash. This alogorithm strives a very good balance between speed and security and has built-in support for a salt for randomized hashing.

Setting the salt

You can set the salt in elasticsearch.yml like:

searchguard.compliance.salt: abc123
Name Description
searchguard.compliance.salt Salt to use when generating the hash value. Must be at least 32 characters, only ASCII is allowed. Optional.

While setting a salt is optional, it is highly recommended to do so.

Configuring field masking

Field masking can be configured per role and per index, very similar to field-level security. You simply list the fields to be masked under the _masked_fields_ key in the role definition. Wildcards and nested documents are supported:

role_name:
  cluster:
  ...
  indices:
    indexname:
      documenttype:
      _masked_fields_:
        - field1
        - field2*
        - fieldx.fieldy
        - fielda.fieldb.*      

Field masking plays well together with field-level security. You just need to make sure that the fields you want to mask are not excluded from the result by the field-level security configuration.

Example

sg_human_resources_masking:
  cluster:
    - CLUSTER_COMPOSITE_OPS_RO
  indices:
    'humanresources':
      '*':
        - READ
      _fls_:
        - 'Designation'
        - 'Salary'
        - 'FirstName'
        - 'LastName'
        - 'Address'
      _masked_fields_:
        - '*Name'
        - 'Address'

In this example only the fields Designation, Salary, FirstName, LastName and Address of documents in the index humanresources are included in the resulting documents. This is done by whitelisting these fields in the _fls_ section of the role / index definition. In addition, the FirstName, LastName and Address are masked. A search result might look like:

{
  "_index" : "humanresources",
  "_type" : "employees",
  "_id" : "1",
  "_score" : 5.7807436,
  "_source" : {
    "Designation" : "Manager",
    "Salary" : 154000,
    "Address" : "c560467d662d919fe9d1439127a5d3dd7da027dbadfd677ed88367a38a90fc69",
    "FirstName" : "fe6d625e4d577ab9b57bc403027e7022edfc27743991d73b14c594d6a8462443",
    "LastName" : "2823cef66118a9dd3f1ceb523018c2c47e40d3d48471e42285aa8cb8d1531528"
  }
}

Custom field masking

Since Search Guard v24 you can configure alternative hash algorithms (instead of Blake2bDigest) and you also can mask only a part of the field value.

Defining an alternative hash algorithm

sg_masking_sha:
  cluster:
    - CLUSTER_COMPOSITE_OPS_RO
  indices:
    'humanresources':
      '*':
        - READ
      _masked_fields_:
        - '*Name::SHA-1'
        - 'Address::SHA-512'

The above example means that all values of all fields ending with Name are anonymized with an SHA-1 hash and all values of the field Address are anonymized with an SHA-512. All hashing algorithms provided which are provided by your JVM are supported. This typically includes MD5, SHA-1, SHA-384, and SHA-512.

If you use the REST API to define your roles and masked fields then the validity or your alternative hash algorithm is checked.

Pattern-based field anonymization

You can apply one or more regex patterns and replacement strings to configure how the value of a particular field will be anonymized. The formal definition is <field-pattern>::/<regex>/::<replacement-string>. There can be multiple regex/replacement tuples whereas the result from one on the left side is passed as in input to the one on the right side (like piping in a shell). The regex can include ^ and $, they are not implicitly assumed.

sg_pattern_anonymization:
  cluster:
    - CLUSTER_COMPOSITE_OPS_RO
  indices:
    'humanresources':
      '*':
        - READ
      _masked_fields_:
        - 'lastname::/.*/::*'
        - '*ip_source::/[0-9]{1,3}$/::XXX::/^[0-9]{1,3}/::***'

The above example means that every field value of the field lastname is anonymized by replacing all characters with a . All values of all fields ending with ip_source are anonymized by replacing the last three numbers with XXX and then take this and anonymize it by replacing the last three numbers with **. So an example IP address of 100.200.121.212 will result in 100.200.***.XXX.

If you use the REST API to define your roles and masked fields then the syntax of your patterns is checked.

Effects on the compliance read history

The compliance read history feature makes it possible to track read access to sensitive fields in your documents. For example, you can track access to the email field of customer records in order to stay GDPR compliant.

Access to masked fields are excluded from the read history, because the user has only seen that hash value, and not the email address in clear text.


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