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Adding Search Guard users
This guide assumes that you have already installed Search Guard in your cluster using the demo installer.
The internal user database
Search Guard can use external authentication systems like LDAP, OpenID, SAML or Kerberos for authenticating users. As an alternative, you can also use the internal user database to manage your users.
The internal user database stores users and their credentials directly in Elasticsearch. To manage users in the internal user database you have three options:
- Configure the users, their password hashes and backend roles in the sg_intern_users.yml file and use the sgadmin CLI to upload this configuration to your cluster (Community)
- Use the internal users REST API (Enterprise)
- Use the Kibana internal users configuration GUI (Enterprise)
In this guide we will take the first approach.
Adding users to sg_internal_users.yml
The sg_internal_users.yml file defines all Search Guard users. You can find an example in the folder:
<ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-7/sgconfig/sg_internal_users.yml
A user entry has the following basic format:
<username>: hash: <hashed password> backend_roles: - <rolename> - <rolename>
In this guide we want to add a user called
jdoe which has read-only access to a fictitious index called
We also want to add the user to a backend role called
hr_department. For the moment, think about backend roles as a way of putting users in different groups, just like LDAP or Active Directory groups. We use them later to assign all users with the
hr_department backend role to a Search Guard role.
So our basic entry in
sg_internal_users.yml looks like:
jdoe: hash: <hashed password> backend_roles: - hr_department
Generating the password hash
Because we do not want to store any cleartext passsords anywhere, the password of the user must be hashed before we can add it to the configuration.
Search Guard uses a BCrypt hash for the passwords, so you can use any tool that is capable of producing a BCrypt hash.
Search Guard ships with a
hash.sh script which you can use as well to generate the password hash. The script is located in:
<ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-7/tools/hash.sh
We can generate the hash like:
<ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-7/tools/hash.sh -p <cleartext password>
Which will then output the hash on the command line. We can now simply copy the hash to our configuration:
jdoe: hash: $2y$12$AwwN1fn0HDEw/LBCwWU0y.Ys6PoKBL5pR.WTYAIV92ld7tA8kozqa backend_roles: - hr_department
Since we use the BCrypt algorithm, your actual hash values might vary from the ones in this guide.
Adding more users
In our example we will add another user that is also member of the
hr_department group, and one more user that is member of the
devops group. We will then create Search Guard roles for these users in the next step. Our configuration looks like:
jdoe: hash: $2y$12$AwwN1fn0HDEw/LBCwWU0y.Ys6PoKBL5pR.WTYAIV92ld7tA8kozqa backend_roles: - hr_department psmith: hash: $2y$12$YOVZhJ.gbZOAoGyd9YGNMuw7rWYTfB73n8OGBLtsrihMkW5rg5D1G backend_roles: - hr_department cmaddock: hash: $2y$12$3UFikPXIZLoHcsDGD0hyqOvxjytdXeRkefIF1M58jA5oueSDKthzu backend_roles: - devops
To keep things simple, the passwords we use here are the same as the username.
Uploading the changes to your cluster
In order to activate the changed configuration, we need to upload it to the Search Guard configuration index by using the
sgadmin.sh command line tool.
If you used the demo installer to set up Search Guard, you will find a pre-configured sgadmin.sh script with all required parameters already set in the tools directory.
cd into this directory:
cd <ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-7/tools/
And then execute:
This will upload all configuration files located in
<ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-7/sgconfig/
to the cluster.
If everything works as expected, you should see an output like
Will update 'sg/config' with <ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-6/sgconfig/sg_config.yml SUCC: Configuration for 'config' created or updated Will update 'sg/roles' with <ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-6/sgconfig/sg_roles.yml SUCC: Configuration for 'roles' created or updated Will update 'sg/rolesmapping' with <ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-6/sgconfig/sg_roles_mapping.yml SUCC: Configuration for 'rolesmapping' created or updated Will update 'sg/internalusers' with <ES installation directory>/plugins/search-guard-6/sgconfig/sg_internal_users.yml SUCC: Configuration for 'internalusers' created or updated Will update 'sg/actiongroups' with <ES installation directory>plugins/search-guard-6/sgconfig/sg_action_groups.yml SUCC: Configuration for 'actiongroups' created or updated Done with success
The configuration changes are active immediately. There is no need to restart your cluster.